【目的】 调查期刊编辑和科研人员对学术不端及其边缘行为的界定、防范和处理认知,为有效防控不同程度的学术不端及其边缘行为的发生,为科技期刊编辑部防范和处理学术不端行为提供指导,亦为相关部门辨识与处理学术不端行为提供参考。【方法】 依据简明、全面、一致、准确和实用的原则,设计针对期刊编辑人员和科研人员2种问卷,并通过“问卷星”进行问卷的调查回收并对调查数据进行整理分析。【结果】 严格界定和划分学术不端、学术不当和学术失当行为;梳理15种学术不端、9种学术不当和10种学术失当行为的具体表现;总结6种学术不端、5种学术不当和5种学术失当行为的处理方式;明确引发学术不端及其边缘行为的制度和环境因素以及调查对象对我国相关文件政策的认知情况;总结15种期刊编辑人员和8种科研人员对学术不端行为的预防对策;确定20%的文字复制比是目前编辑部普遍容许的最高复制比。多数调查对象认为,对具有学术不端行为的稿件应采取退稿和撤稿等严厉措施,同时应尽量减少学术不当和学术失当行为。【结论】 在处理学术不端及其边缘行为时,对学术不端行为要“零容忍”,要减少研究人员不懂学术规范而引起的学术不端边缘行为。
[Purposes] This paper aims to investigate the cognition of journal editors and scientific researchers on the definition, prevention, and treatment of academic misconduct and its marginal behavior, so as to effectively prevent and control the occurrence of academic misconduct and its marginal behavior at different levels, provide guidance for the editorial offices of scientific journals to prevent and deal with academic misconduct, and provide reference for relevant departments to identify academic misconduct. [Methods] According to the principles of conciseness, comprehensiveness, consistency, accuracy, and practicality, two types of questionnaires were designed for journal editors and scientific researchers, the questionnaire surveys were submitted and recovered through Sojump online platform, and then the data were collected and analyzed. [Findings] Academic misconduct, academic misbehavior, and unintentional academic misbehavior are strictly defined and divided. The specific manifestations of 15 academic misconducts, 9 academic misbehaviors, and 10 unintentional academic misbehaviors are arranged. The ways to deal with 6 academic misconducts, 5 academic misbehaviors, and 5 unintentional academic misbehaviors are summarized. The factors of academic misconduct and its marginal behaviors related to institution and environment, and the respondents' awareness of relevant documents and policies in China are clarified. The preventive measures against academic misconduct of 15 types for journal editors and 8 types for scientific researchers are summarized. 20% of the text copy ratio is the highest copy ratio currently allowed by the editorial offices. Most respondents believe that severe punishments such as rejection and withdrawal should be adopted for manuscripts with academic misconduct, as well to minimize the occurrence of academic misbehavior and unintentional academic misbehavior. [Conclusions] It is necessary to maintain zero tolerance for academic misconduct when dealing with academic misconduct and its marginal behaviors, and to reduce the academic misconduct caused by researchers who do not understand academic norms.
Unintentional academic misbehavior,
Prevention and treatment