[Purposes] The fact that the cited frequency of 297 papers retracted from NSC (short for Nature, Science, and Cell) since the inception has increased can provide a perspective on the value of retracted papers and a reference for scientific journals and competent department of scientific research management to control academic misconducts. [Methods] With scientometric methods, we analyzed the annual distribution and trend of retracted papers from NSC and the increased cited frequency after retraction and discussed the phenomenon. [Findings] The total number of retracted manuscripts from NSC has been on the rise. Science has seen the highest total cites of papers after withdrawal and repeatedly retracted multiple papers. Most of the citing papers express a positive attitude to the points of the retracted papers. [Conclusions] The rise of the cited frequency of retracted papers is not groundless, and the reasons for the retractions are diverse. Most of the findings in the retracted papers are valuable, and some even spur research innovations. Therefore, the academic value of retracted papers should be evaluated objectively.
[Purposes] This paper analyzes the reasons for the retraction of SCIE-indexed medical research articles by Chinese scholars from 2019 to 2020 and the characteristics of these articles, which is expected to provide insights into the prevention of academic misconducts and improvement of research integrity in medical science in China. [Methods] The SCIE-indexed medical research articles of Chinese scholars which were retracted in 2019-2020 were retrieved from Retraction Watch Database, and the documental information was recorded, including article title, authors, author affiliation, journal name, journal publisher, and reasons for the retraction. GraphPad Prism 8.3.0 was employed for descriptive analysis, and the correlation between the impact factor and retraction rate of the journals was examined by Spearman's correlation analysis. [Findings] A total of 479 retracted articles were screened out. The main reasons for the retraction included concerns/issues, duplications, and errors, which involved data, images, methods, results, and no response from the author. The retracted articles were published on 194 journals, and PLoS ONE, European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, OncoTargets and Therapy, and Biosciences Reports ranked the top five in the number of the retracted articles. Moreover, the top three publishers of the retracted articles were Springer Nature, Elsevier, and PLoS. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed the negative correlation between the impact factor and the retraction rate of the journals. [Conclusions] A high retraction rate is found in SCIE-indexed medical research articles published by Chinese scholars due to data and image problems. Therefore, China should strengthen the research integrity to reduce the academic misconducts in medical science.
[Purposes] This paper aims to quantitatively analyze the time to retraction of global papers in oncology from 2011 to 2020 and the influencing factors, and explore changes in recent years, so that researchers and journal editors can gain a clear insight into the significance of time to retraction. [Methods] Relevant data were retrieved from Retraction Watch Database, and the influence of each factor on the time to retraction was analyzed by non-parametric test and parametric test. [Findings] A total of 1262 eligible retracted papers were screened out, and the time to retraction decreased in two stages (P<0.001), with the median of 545.00 days (about 1.49 years). Late publication, clinical research, and non-cooperative paper type significantly shortened the time to retraction, but the data in recent years may tend to be stable. The publication time of papers was in moderate negative correlation with the shortening of the time (r=-0.501, P<0.001). [Conclusions] From 2011 to 2020, the time to retraction of global papers in oncology decreases in a step-like manner, and the negative correlation between the publication year and the time to retraction is the strongest.
[Purposes] This paper reveals the origin of the dilemma in distinguishing between necessary and unnecessary, voluntary and involuntary, and mandatory and non-mandatory citations in the judgment of coercive citation, and puts forward countermeasures against the dilemma. [Methods] With the methods of logical analysis, case analysis, and scenario analysis, we analyzed the reasons for the dilemma and the countermeasures. [Findings] The judgment of coercive citation is evaluative in nature. The free discretion space derived from rhetorical value appeal, the difference of academic paradigm, and the value conflict of multiple subjects are the important reasons for the dilemma of the judgment of necessity of citation. According to the difference in connotation of voluntariness and involuntariness, eight scenarios on voluntariness and involuntariness are proposed. According to the generation method of coerciveness, the coercive citations can be classified into three types: straightforward-coercive citation, covert-restricting citation, and disciplining-inductive citation. [Conclusions] The following suggestions are proposed to tackle the dilemma of judging coercive citation: small peer review, no citing unless necessary, optimization of rhetorical citation, and establishment of academic credit system.
[Purposes] This paper explores the development of knowledge service in scientific journals, which is expected to enhance knowledge service in this sector in China. [Methods] In line with the basic laws of industrial development, we summarized the development stages and characteristics of knowledge service in scientific journals, the dynamic factors, levels of the factors, the driving mechanisms, and the relationship between the mechanisms and the development stages through literature research and case analysis. [Findings] Owing to the internal factors such as technical progress, individual journal development, and industrial upgrading and the external factors of user needs, policies, and knowledge payment, knowledge service has progressed from individual development, clustering development, and community development, to intelligent development among scientific journals as driven by the mechanisms of "expansion, restructuring, collaboration, and innovation and integration", respectively. [Conclusions] According to the development of knowledge service in scientific journals, it is necessary to expand knowledge service via typical cases, boost industry integration through cooperation, activate the knowledge service resources through innovation, and benefit from knowledge service via suitable operation strategy.
[Purposes] This paper aims to accurately identify and classify the stakeholders of academic journals, which is expected to serve as a reference for academic journals to motivate different parties and become more competitive. [Methods] According to the theory of stakeholder identification and salience proposed by Mitchell, the academic journals' stakeholders were defined, classified, and managed in terms of legitimacy, power, and urgency. [Findings] A total of 10 stakeholders of academic journals were identified and they were classified into definitive type, expectant type, and latent type, who constituted respectively the core layer, supporting layer, and extended layer of academic journals' competitiveness. [Conclusions] Strategies based on pluralistic stakeholder composition should be adopted to promote the competitive power of academic journals. Academic journals should mobilize the definitive stakeholders in core layer, cooperate with expectant stakeholders in supporting layer, and maintain a good relationship with the latent stakeholders in extended layer. In the meantime, they should coordinate the interest of and integrate the stakeholders.
[Purposes] We use different methods to detect image manipulations and thereby put forward clear image detection specifications and standards in English academic journals. [Methods] We summarized the characteristics of typical cases of image manipulations in recent years and used computer-aided identification tools, such as Photoshop, Droplets, and Forensically, to detect image manipulations at different stages of article processing, aiming to improve the detection method of image manipulations. [Findings] The detection method and judging criteria for image manipulations were developed and improved, with which image manipulation was detected in 3.2% and 1.3% of the papers before and after publication, respectively. [Conclusions] Journals should emphasize the image manipulation and guide the correct processing of images, and the competent department of journals should strengthen the ethical construction of journals.
[Purposes] This paper analyzes the main findings and solutions in quality control for dataset publishing review, which is expected to improve the quality of research data and serve as a reference for establishing standards and norms for quality review of data journals. [Methods] Taking Digital Journal of Global Change Data Repository as an example, we reviewed the metadata and datasets and compared the metadata, datasets, and data papers, thereby summarizing the data problems and analyzing the reasons. [Findings] The main data problems are as follows: incomplete and nonstandard metadata, inconsistent data description in datasets, metadata, and data papers, unsuitable development methodology for datasets or lack of scientific basis, dataset inconsistent with actual situation, incomplete dataset, inconsistent dataset content, and dataset used failing to be cited or cited incorrectly. [Conclusions] A lot of data problems are found in research data review, which is closely related to the current evaluation mechanism and the authors' negligence on data quality.
[Purposes] This paper summarizes the latest practices of innovation in journal peer review and describes the trend, which is expected to serve as a reference for the development of peer review in China. [Methods] With the methods of case study, literature research, and logical analysis, we explored the latest practices of innovation in peer review of academic journals, analyzed the trends, and proposed suggestions. [Findings] The practices of innovation in the initiator of the review, review mode, supervision of review, certification and incentives, and platforms were summarized. We found that the review tended to be non-linear, active, intelligent, decentralized, multi-standard, and transparent. [Conclusions] It is recommended that domestic journals optimize the implementation of peer review, and the supervision, certification, and incentives measurements, and establish support systems and platforms to promote the development of peer review in the journal industry in China.
[Purposes] By sharing practical experience and summarizing the challenges of platform construction, we hope to promote the development of China's digital publishing platform for scientific journals. [Methods] The status quo of domestic platform construction was investigated and the deficiencies were summarized. The construction ideas of Tsinghua University Press were shared. The difficulties in the construction process were also discussed. [Findings] Relying on the project of the international digital publishing platform of "Excellence Action Plan for China STM Journals", the platform developed by Tsinghua University Press has realized the digital integration in the whole publishing process, internationalized communication, rapid publication with multiple modes, and journal-oriented knowledge service. [Conclusions] By tackling the problems in platform construction and striving for the support of policies, China is due to establish a number of high-level publishing and communication platforms to enhance the development of scientific journals and serve national scientific and technological innovation.
[Purposes] This paper aims to explore methods for the development of agricultural popular science journals in China amid village digitalization. [Methods] By means of literature investigation, case study, comparative study, and summary, we summarized the problems in the development of agricultural popular science journals and proposed methods for the development of the journals as inspired by village digitalization. [Findings] At the moment, agricultural popular science journals face the challenges of low-quality unattractive non-targeted content and unsatisfactory communication effect. Agricultural popular science journals which are generally scattered and weak embrace opportunities and challenges in digital village development. [Conclusions] Amid village digitalization, agricultural popular science journals can follow the development path of "new technology as basis—support with platforms—digital integration". With the basic mission of "popularization of science", they should improve the information distribution function, cooperate with related enterprises to seek digital technical support, cultivate and build a talent team for development in the digital media era, optimize communication scenarios to enhance user's experience, build brands, seek development with digital technology, and break through the traditional thinking mode to innovate the collection and editing mode via digital technology.
[Purposes] This paper aims to explore the influencing factors of the communication effect of WeChat official accounts of university social science journals and the driving mechanism, which is expected to provide a reference for improving the communication effect and influence of social science journals. [Methods] Taking the 16 university social science journals with WeChat official accounts as examples, we adopted the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis and fsQCA 3.1b software to unveil the core influencing factors and generation path of the communication effect from the aspects of dissemination subject, release time, function design, views, and Wows. [Findings] The communication effect of the WeChat official accounts of university social science journals is co-determined by multiple factors, with dissemination subject and Wows as the core factors and function design and views as auxiliary factors. The communication is achieved by the object-driven path and the subject-driven path. [Conclusions] University social science journals should fix the time for content release on WeChat official accounts, make full use of university resources, and improve the quality and form of the content on the accounts to achieve ideal communication effect.
[Purposes] This paper investigates the services on official websites of leading forestry journals in China and abroad, which is expected to serve as a reference for optimizing and upgrading the website construction of forestry journals in China. [Methods] Through network research, the status quo of official websites of forestry journals in China and abroad, such as the columns, service content, and service mode, was probed. [Findings] The official websites of foreign forestry journals have comprehensive columns and rich service content with emphasis on the service for authors and readers and the value-added presentation of papers. Through multimedia integration, well-timed upgrading of content, and emphasis on personalized service, these journals enhanced the services on the official websites. However, official websites of forestry journals in China have a few columns and unitary content, without emphasis on services for authors. The value-added services of papers need to be more comprehensive and exquisite. Thus, they should enhance the application of new media, release well-timed content, and strengthen personalized services. [Conclusions] Under the background of media convergence, forestry journals in China should strengthen the construction and upgrading of their websites, break with tradition, provide comprehensive services with emphasis, release well-timed content, make full use of new media, enhance the personalized services, and adopt clustering development.
[Purposes] This paper discusses the experience of scientific journals in gathering latest hotspots by publishing special issues, which is expected to serve as a reference for scientific journals to drive innovation and build brand. [Methods] Taking the experience of Science & Technology Review in publishing the special issue of Annual Science and Technology Review for six years as an example, this paper analyzed the strategies for selecting topics, soliciting contributions, publishing, and promoting of the special issues, and elucidated the unique value, effect, and typical experience of special issues. [Findings] The special issue of Annual Science and Technology Review is forward-looking and discusses current affairs with novel themes, in-depth interpretation, and various forms of communication. Involving more disciplines and enjoying stronger impact and communication effect, it has significantly improved the brand effect of the journal. [Conclusions] Summarizing annual scientific hotspots and scientific information in multiple disciplines, special issues of scientific journals display latest research outcomes in China and abroad, driving innovation and improving the academic leadership and communication of journals.
[Purposes] This paper discusses the organizational structure of global leading university presses, which is expected to serve as a reference for the organizational structure setting of university journal clusters in China. [Methods] We investigated the organizational strucutures and operation processes of Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press. Then, taking the English journal cluster of Nanjing Agricultural University as an example, we designed the organizational structure and management methods and summarized the effect and enlightenment. [Findings] With the organizational structures of Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press as a reference, Nanjing Agricultural University set up the organizational structure of "subject specialists+full-time editors+intern editors working from home". This structure ensures regular monitoring of journal development, rational journal decision-making, low marginal cost of individual journals, rapid growth of new journals, journal visibility in the international scientific community, easy recruitment, and differential development among editors. [Conclusions] The organizational strucuture of global leading university presses represented by Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press is of reference value, which can promote the development of university journal clusters in China.
[Purposes] This paper explores the ideas and strategies for the transformation of information dissemination of a laboratory medicine journal, which is expected to serve as a reference for the transformation of other laboratory medicine journals. [Methods] Case analysis method was used to analyze the intellectual property (IP) promotion of "Test Jun" of International Journal of Laboratory Medicine. The connotations of and connection between communicators, media, and users were clarified. The idea of three-dimensional transformation of information dissemination of laboratory medicine journals was put forward. [Findings] The IP of "Test Jun" was created by the new media team of International Journal of Laboratory Medicine. They promote it from IP visualization, professional scene, public scene and user-generated content (UGC) community. The following social media-based strategies for the transformation of information communication were proposed: using information dissemination to stimulate user participation, adopting symbolic interaction theory to improve information experience, and rewarding post-marketing to enhance the sense of information value. [Conclusions] In order to realize the transformation of the journal information communication system, the communicators should correctly understand the connotation of "communication" and break with tradition to make full use of symbolic interaction theory and operation for innovative dissemination.
[Purposes] This paper aims to analyze the characteristics and deficiencies of Scopus-indexed Chinese journals of humanities and social sciences (HSS) and propose suggestions for the "going out" of HSS journals in China. [Methods] Multivariate statistical analysis was used to study the 83 Scopus-indexed Chinese journals of HSS. To be specific, data on the number of the journals, disciplines, languages, organizers, publishers, CN, copyright owner, and access mode were collected and the correlation was elucidated. [Findings] Scopus-indexed Chinese journals of HSS take up a small proportion among all the indexed journals of HSS. They cover a wider range of disciplines, particularly social sciences, arts and humanities, and business, management and accounting. Most of them are in English, disseminated by foreign publishers, and organized by universities. The majority of the journals in English have no CN, and organizers of some of the 83 journals do not have the copyright. More journals seek open access. [Conclusions] Chinese journals of HSS should make efforts to be included in more database, and strengthen their power of academic discourse and independent distribution in the world, seeking clustering in large scale and transforming to open access. More English HSS journals are encouraged to be created, and journals in Chinese are advocated to be internationalized. The relative government department, sponsor, and organizer of HSS journals shall enhance the management and support to HSS journals.