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[Purposes] This paper explores the roles of volunteers in academic quality control of foreign preprint platforms, aiming at providing a reference for the development of such platforms in China. [Methods] Through network research and case study, we probed into and summarized the volunteer systems of top (>10) international preprint platforms, and then selected the representative arXiv and RePEc to analyze impact of the organizational structure and functions of the volunteer system on the academic quality control of the platforms. [Findings] The maturity of the volunteer system is of great difference among the platforms. The current volunteer systems of arXiv and RePEc specify rights and responsibilities of the members and the diversified academic quality control methods by the members, but the roles of volunteers are different between the two platforms. [Conclusions] Volunteers are crucial for the quality control of preprint platforms. China's preprint platforms should recruit a wide range of volunteers to develop a sound volunteer system, optimize the organizational structure to clarify the responsibilities of volunteers, and learn from foreign counterparts to enrich the academic quality control functions under the participation of volunteers.
[Purposes] According to the Report to the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, this paper discusses the role of publishing papers in China in the development of Chinese path to modernization, which can serve as a reference for Chinese university scientific journals to improve their service ability. [Methods] We analyzed the logical relationship between Chinese path to modernization and the publication of scientific papers in China, the historical evolution of "SCI fever" and the harm, the historical backgrounds for the "SCI fever" and the trend of publishing papers in China, and the necessity of publishing papers in China. On the basis of CNKI, we investigated the difference in papers on the Journal of Xiamen University (Natural Science) before and after the "SCI fever" and discussed how university scientific journals better serve Chinese scholars. [Findings] Scientific and technological independence and innovation are important guarantees for Chinese path to modernization. The publication of scientific papers in China and the obtaining of local intellectual property rights and problem framework lay a foundation for scientific and technological independence and innovation. Publishing journals on SCI journals and on journals in China are the strategies in response to the development of China's science and technology at different historical stages. "SCI fever" has affected the Journal of Xiamen University (Natural Science), as manifested by the loss of scientific papers from the university. [Conclusions] Publishing papers in China can help endow the country with related intellectual property, which is a guarantee for China's scientific and technological self-reliance and the Chinese path to modernization. Chinese scientific journals should be confident and improve their service ability for local scholars, thereby shouldering the responsibility of academic inheritance and innovation enhancement.
[Purposes] The serious manipulation of journal impact factors has seriously affected its objectivity, and this improper behavior should be strictly prohibited. It is urgent to find effective methods for identifying manipulated journals. [Methods] Taking the JCR data published on the Web of Science platform as the research object, the data on 14 bibliometrics indexes of normal journals and abnormal (suppressed due to manipulation of impact factors) journals were selected to form two data sets (normal and abnormal). Python Scikit-learn library was used to compile machine learning algorithm program to classify, train, verify, and test the training set, verification set, and test set generated from the normal and abnormal combined data set. [Findings] The machine-learning algorithm effectively classifies the normal and abnormal journal data sets, with precision, accuracy, and recall rate in data validation sets reaching more than 98%. The feature importance of the 5 most important features of the algorithm is 91.55%. The recognition effect of some algorithms on the data of the fifth year after the suppression of the journals restored to normal begins to decline. All the journals concerned by editors are classified as abnormal journals. The 2021 edition JCR suppression and suppression-warning journals are accurately classified as abnormal journals. Support vector machine algorithm has an optimal prediction effect. [Conclusions] The machine-learning algorithm has natural advantages of rapidity and objectivity in the recognition of journals of impact factors manipulation. With the increasing number of manipulation methods of impact factors and bibliometric indicators, it is more and more difficult to manually synthesize various indicators for identification and judgment, and the advantages of various machine-learning algorithms are continuously reflected.
[Purposes] This paper aims to provide medical journal editorial offices/reviewers with detailed review criteria to control the overall academic quality of Chinese medical journals by establishing a quality evaluation index system for clinical medical research papers. [Methods] Literature research, expert interview, empirical study, group discussion, and other research methods were used to collect and screen out the quality evaluation indexes of clinical medical research papers. Indexes were categorized according to structural dimensions. [Findings] A quality evaluation index system for clinical medical research papers is preliminarily established, including 17 indexes, namely, ethics committee review and consent approval document, the subject's informed consent signature, the ethics review declaration, the conflict of interest statement, the authenticity of the research, the authenticity of report, the correlation with clinical practice, citation of evidence (literature) such as secondary research and transformation research, registration of clinical studies, reporting standards, correct research design, methodological quality, risk of bias assessment, complete statistical information and correct interpretation of statistical results, innovation of scientific issues based on subject areas, improvement of evidence quality levels, and methodological innovations. The system is divided into 6 dimensions (ethics, authenticity, practicality, transparency, scientificity, and innovation). Each evaluation index is defined and interpreted, the evaluation method is explained, and the person responsible for the review is clarified. [Conclusions] "Approaching the truth value with proper authentic method" is the core of academic quality evaluation of clinical medical research papers. To effectively control the overall academic quality of medical journals in China, we should promote standardized review process vigorously, improve the professional competence of medical science editors, and establish a certification mechanism for medical science editors.
[Purposes] This paper aims to summarize the description rules for author names in bibliographic references of global influential English journals, serving as a for reference for the editing or reviewing of the references in domestic journals. Moreover, suggestions for the improvement of relevant national standard are proposed. [Methods] We analyzed and summarized the description rules and formats for author names in bibliographic references of top 50 English journals in impact factor in the Journal Citation Report (2021) from Clarivate. [Findings] Generally speaking, the given names are followed by the surnames for authors in bibliographic references of papers published in the global influential English journals. To be specific, given names of authors in the references are described in accordance with the rules in the original papers and generally abbreviated and only the first letters of the surnames are capitalized. Except some journals which misjudge the names due to the ambiguity, they generally can accurately distinguish the surnames and given names of common English names and English names with prefixes, suffixes, and compound surnames, and correctly handle the abbreviations of surnames. [Conclusions] The description rules for author names in bibliographic references of global influential English journals have great reference value for the editing or reviewing of the references in domestic journals. These rules also indirectly prove that there is no expression or implication that the surnames should be capitalized in ISO 690. Therefore, it is suggested that "surnames in all capital letters" in GB/T 7714—2015 should be abandoned.
[Purposes] This paper aims to eliminate divergence and unify appellation by analyzing the harms and causes of the appellation divergence in citation format of data items and exploring logical specifications and scientific basis for academic denomination. [Methods] The literature survey method was used to sort out the types and quantities of citation format of data items. Based on the principles of terminology denomination and general principles of formal logic about concept and definition, combined with word-formation norms in modern Chinese, this paper gave the scientific definition of the concept of citation format and comparatively analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of existing diverse appellations. [Findings] Each of the existing 9 appellations has its advantages and disadvantages. Comparatively speaking, "citation format" and "quotation format" are more rational. [Conclusions] "Citation format" can be used as the proper name for citation format of data items, and "quotation format" can be used as an alternate name.
[Purposes] This paper aims to explore the ideas and strategies for the transformation of traditional medical journals and provide feasible theoretical and method references for the transformation and upgrading of traditional medical journals. [Methods] Taking the reconstruction of user connections in a single issue of Chinese Journal of Hepatology as an example, and based on the theory of disruptive innovation proposed by Clayton M. Christensen, this paper discussed the transformation ideas of Chinese Journal of Hepatology in reconstructing the connection with the content, emotion, and identity of the users. Furthermore, this paper put forward transformation strategies for innovating the positioning of target users and market, products, and profit models. [Findings] Chinese Journal of Hepatology reconstructs the user connection, searches the low-end users who are ignored by the mainstream market or the real demands of the users whose needs are not met, developes the products with high consumer surplus and network externality relying on media technology, and builds the innovative profit model to realize the transformation. [Conclusions] Traditional medical journals should reconstruct the connection with users and innovate the positioning of target users and market, products, and profit models, thereby realizing the transformation and development.
[Purposes] This paper aims to learn from the practical experience of excellent cases of omnimedia convergence publishing of top international biomedical journals and Chinese medical journals, thus providing suggestions for omnimedia convergence publishing of Chinese medical journals. [Methods] The network research method was used to search the information on various journal websites and social media platforms. The current situation of the top international biomedical journals and Chinese medical journals of different groups in omnimedia convergence publishing were analyzed and compared, and the characteristics of the excellent cases of Chinese and foreign medical journals were summarized. [Findings] Top international biomedical journals make full use of digital technology and resources with rich multimedia content and display methods and disseminate through various social media. These journals operate in clusters and have special multimedia production and operation teams. Journals of the Chinese Medical Association Publishing House, the largest medical journal cluster in China, have tried omnimedia convergence publishing in recent years. Although the advantages and special content of the journal have been demonstrated, there is still a big gap with the top international biomedical journals. Besides the website, only one new media platform—the WeChat official account is generally adopted by the medical journals of universities, and the frequency of news release of most official accounts is unstable. [Conclusions] By comparing the overall situation of Chinese and foreign medical journals in omnimedia convergence publishing, it is suggested that Chinese medical journals should change the traditional thinking of journal management, actively explore new modes of omnimedia convergence publishing, deepen cooperation with publishing technology support companies to reduce editors' workload, develop and expand the content of omnimedia convergence publishing of journals, join the platform or journal cluster, equip with professional posts of new media, and cultivate compound editorial talents to carry out omnimedia convergence publishing.
[Purposes] This paper aims to improve the communication quality of WeChat content of academic journals by establishing a reading guidance mode based on reading effect. [Methods] Based on the cognitive theory, the cognitive process of academic mobile reading comprehension was explained. On this basis, 278 original tweets of 11 representative Chinese scientific journal accounts with high WeChat communication power were taken as examples to analyze their strategies and problems of reading guidance, thereby proposing to construct a reading guidance mode based on reading effect. [Findings] The academic mobile reading with good reading effect involves the establishment of specific reading objectives, attention processing of important content, and construction of situational models. The sample journals have not yet formed corresponding strategies for reading guidance. A reading guidance mode including objective guidance, visual guidance, and meaning guidance can be constructed to improve the academic mobile reading effect of scientific research readers. [Conclusions] Changing the concept of academic communication, from the pursuit of reading quantity to the improvement of reading effect, has positive significance for improving the quality of mobile communication of academic journals.
[Purposes] This paper aims to discuss paths for the construction of the publishing and communication platform for English scientific journals in China and their feasibilities, providing references for the construction of the international first-class scientific journal publishing platform. [Methods] Combined with the construction of the English journal publishing and communication platform carried out by the Chinese Medical Association Publishing House with the international platform technology service provider as well as the field research and literature analysis, this paper proposed several paths for cooperative construction of the publishing and communication platform for English scientific journals in China and analyzed the feasibility of each path. [Findings] The construction of the publishing and communication platform for English scientific journals in China is divided into three paths, namely, construction relying on domestic technology, construction relying on foreign technology, and acquisition of foreign platforms. The feasibility analysis of platform construction shows that the publisher should comprehensively consider the construction concept, technology adaptability, platform controllability, platform discoverability, funds, risk control, and other facts to choose the right path. Meanwhile, the reserve of talents, technologies, and ideas is required in the joint platform construction. [Conclusions] Construction of the publishing and communication platform for English scientific journals in China is still in the initial stage of development, and it still lacks successful experience in high-end platform architecture, industrial chain construction, talent resource reserve, and high-quality sustainable development mode. We should constantly promote and support the construction of several representative intensive platforms with the help of policies, with bold practice, thereby exploring an effective way for the construction and operation of a first-class scientific journal publishing platform in China.
[Purposes] This paper aims to explore the professional identity and development path of new media editors of scientific journals under the background of deep integration of publishing, thus providing ideas for comprehensively promoting the development of new media editors. [Methods] Using the methods of literature survey, concept analysis, historical research, comparative research, deduction, etc., this paper studied the professional identity and development path of new media editors of scientific journals from the aspects of concept definition, professional identity evolution, policy incentives, evaluation system reform, talent team construction, and self-promotion of editors. [Findings] The professional identity and development of new media editors of scientific journals can be achieved through the following paths. The definition of new media editor should be clarified, with clear position responsibilities and work objects. The policy confirmation from The Occupational Classification Code of the People's Republic of China Occupational Classification Canon and occupational standards should be achieved, so that the new media editing profession can be recognized. The professional development of new media editors of scientific journals should be promoted in an all-round way through the reform of the professional title evaluation system, the construction of talent teams, the promotion of the performance evaluation system, the effective connection between talent training and use, and the improvement of self-quality from "three insistences" and "three breakthroughs". [Conclusions] Limited by traditional publishing thinking, the new media editor of scientific journals, as a new profession generated in the process of publishing integration development, has not yet defined its professional concept and orientation. Its status and treatment are not equal to other editors, which is not conducive to the implementation of the national strategy of publishing integration. At present, the professional status of new media editors of scientific journals has been recognized, but professional development needs to be further strengthened.
[Purposes] This paper discusses the core competencies for young editors from scientific journals, which is expected to serve as a reference for the cultivation of young editors. [Methods] We analyzed the contest videos of the 48 finalists of the Fifth Editing Competition for Young Editors of Scientific Journals and developed the model for core competencies of young editors on the basis of grounded theory. Thereby, the ways for improving the competencies of young editors were proposed. [Findings] The core competencies of young editors are manifested as professional connotation, diversified skills, and keeping up with the times, which are respectively the basic, key, and influencing factors for the improvement of young editors. [Conclusions] Young editors should enhance occupational competence, develop diversified skills, and keep up with the times for better development.
[Purposes] This paper aims to analyze changes in article quality of the leading journals of Excellence Action Plan for China STM Journals (referred to as "plan" hereafter) after implementation of the plan in comparison with international well-known journals, in order to provide references and directions for construction of world-class journals from the perspective of content construction. [Methods] Based on the Web of Science database, we analyzed the publishing scale, article type, proportion of international papers, number of countries of paper source, and academic impact of papers before (2018—2019) and after (2020—2021) implementation of the plan, and compared them with the highly recognized international journals in the same research field. [Findings] With implementation of the plan, the leading journals of the plan in China show steady improvement in publishing scale and academic impact as well as slight decrease of proportion of international papers, while half of the journals have relatively single columns, suggesting that there is room for improvement in content extension. There is still a gap between the journals in China and the international journals in both quality and quantity of publications. [Conclusions] The content construction of journals in China requires supports from evaluation system, supporting policy, and the journals' own efforts.
[Purposes] This study aims to explore the differences in retraction reasons among different disciplines, journals with different influences, and different retraction time lags and provide references for Chinese scholars, scientific journals, and research management departments to actively solve paper retractions and academic misconduct based on the Retraction Watch database and Web of Science (WoS) database. [Methods] Through Retraction Watch database, the data on retraction reasons, publication time, retraction time, disciplines, and journals of Chinese papers retracted by international journals between 2016 and 2020 were item-by-item searched and analyzed. Through WoS database, this paper searched JCR divisions of the journals in which the papers were retracted, and compared the retraction reasons of papers in different disciplines, journals with different influences, and different retraction time lags. [Findings] The retraction reasons of Chinese scholars' papers in international journals are complex, and academic misconduct is the main reason, among which duplication/plagiarism is the most common problem. The main forms of academic misconduct are text duplication, data duplication, picture duplication, etc. There are statistically significant differences in the total retraction reasons and distribution of primary and secondary academic misconduct categories among different disciplines, journals with different influences, and different retraction time lags. [Conclusions] International journals show different reasons for the retraction of Chinese scholars' papers. It is recommended to combine the relevant characteristics, pay continuous attention to the diversity and complexity of retraction reasons, increase the efforts to combat academic misconduct, focus on preventing the problem of duplication/plagiarism, and establish a sound system of relevant paper retraction.
[Purposes] This study analyzes the retractions of COVID-19 papers, aiming to provide references for the construction and development of journals in the context of public health emergencies. [Methods] Based on 253 papers associated with COVID-19 in the Retraction Watch database, this study summarized the characteristics of these articles from the perspectives of the number of authors, country distribution, citation, review and retraction period, etc. The reasons for retraction were categorized according to the content of the withdrawal statement and typical cases among them were discussed. [Findings] After excluding papers whose links can not be opened, 243 articles involve 1308 authors from 55 countries, with the largest number of articles retracted from the US. A total of 154 papers are clearly retrieved for online publication and retraction dates, with an average retraction time of 154 days. A total of 86 papers are clearly retrieved for reception and receipt dates, with an average review cycle of 83 days. Except for papers published on the preprint platforms, the remaining 214 papers receive an average of 22.19 citations. The retracted papers have no significant effect on the journal impact factors. More than half of the papers are retracted due to the authors' own reasons. [Conclusions] The control of the quality of academic papers requires the concerted efforts of the country, journals, and authors. As the main platform for sharing academic achievements, scientific journals need to standardize the retraction process and optimize the review mechanism.
[Purposes] This paper aims to understand the development status of Chinese popular science journals and propose strategies for their innovative development. [Methods] We took 223 outstanding popular science journals in the "Chinese Excellent Popular Science Journals Library" published by China National Knowledge Infrastructure as the research object, and made a quantitative study on their founding time, sponsor, publishing place, number of published literature, journal field, journal honor, and other information. [Findings] Chinese popular science journals have gone through periods of germination, starting, vigorous development, and stable development, with a large number of published literature and clustered publishing places and sponsoring organizations. The number of popular science journals in "medical care" is the largest, while a large proportion of popular science journals in "science and technology" have ceased publication. The number of popular science journals in "youth popular science" and "social science" is too small. [Conclusions] To realize the innovative development, Chinese popular science journals should seize the historical opportunity to further strengthen the popularization of science and technology, comply with the needs of the readers and the times, innovate the management system and mechanism, seek unique development advantages, and enrich the publishing forms of journals.