【目的】 分析论文交易的需求特征和学术不端行为的主要诱因。【方法】 从QQ群提取2018年9月12日—2018年11月12日的所有聊天记录(4898条),从某电商平台获取“代写”类产品(4473个)截至2019年2月7日20…26的交易记录(174875笔)及部分评价信息等数据。对获取的聊天记录与交易记录消息进行关键词去重、筛选、合并与频次统计,得到信息发布时段分布、需求分类、涉及期刊、“代写”产品的地区分布等统计结果。【结果】 QQ群发布论文交易类广告的时段主要集中在工作日的上班时间,内容主要包括论文买卖和期刊级别;某电商“代写”产品累计销售额达769.681万元,其店铺主要分布在北京、广东和上海,其产品主要分为晋升类、工作类和学习类。【结论】 学术评价的“唯论文”导向是学术不端行为的直接原因;“代写”产品的“效率高、文笔好、查重率低”是重要诱因;对论文交易双方的惩治较轻、惩治难度较大等导致学术不端行为的实施成本低;期刊编辑随意开具录用通知和社内发票、同意更改作者或署名单位等不规范操作无意间为学术不端打开了“后门”。
[Purposes] This paper aims to analyze the demand characteristics of ghostwriting trading and the main inducement for academic misconduct. [Methods] All chat records (4898 items) were extracted from QQ group from September 12, 2018 to November 12, 2018. The data such as transaction records (174875) and evaluation information of ghostwriting products (4473 products, as of 20…26 February 7, 2019) were obtained from an e-commerce company. Through keyword de-duplication, filtering, merging, and frequency statistics of chat messages and transaction records data, the statistical results of information release period distribution, demand classification, involving journals, and regional distribution of ghostwriting products were obtained. [Findings] The release time of ghostwriting advertisements mainly focuses on the working day, and the advertisement content mainly focuses on the ghostwriting trading and journal level. The cumulative sales of ghostwriting products in e-commerce have reached 7.69681 million yuan, the stores are mainly located in Beijing, Guangdong, and Shanghai, and the products are mainly divided into promotion, work, and study categories. [Conclusions] The orientation of academic evaluation of "paper first" is the direct inducement for academic misconduct; the high efficiency, good writing, and low rate of checking duplication of ghostwriting products are the important inducement; the low cost of academic misconduct is caused by the lighter punishment and the greater difficulty of punishment for both sides of the ghostwriting transaction; the irregular operation of issuing acceptance letters and invoicing and changing authors and institution, unintentionally opens a "back door" for academic misconduct.