【目的】 基于《2019 年CWTS莱顿大学排名》介绍全球高校开放获取 (Open Access,OA)情况, 分析当前OA现状并探究可能的原因,以期为我国OA政策制定提供参考,推进我国OA进程。【方法】 采用网络调研法研究CWTS 排名中OA数据统计方式,并以此为基础,从全球、国家、高校三个层面分类评估OA情况。【结果】 欧洲和北美洲高校OA程度较高,亚洲和非洲高校OA程度较低;美国和中国参与OA的高校数量最多,分别为173所和165所。英国和美国是全球高校OA参与度最高的国家;全球OA程度最高的大学为土耳其毕尔坎特大学,全球OA排名前50的高校中,33所为英国高校,占比66%,美国高校7所,占比14%,中国高校1所,占比2%。【结论】 欧洲和北美洲的政府、科研资助机构及高校在OA方面采取了较多有效措施,并已取得一定成效。虽然我国参与OA的高校数量较多,但OA程度普遍较低,OA涉及多方利益,政府、出版界、学术界需共同努力推进我国OA进程。
[Purposes] Based on CWTS Leiden Ranking 2019, this paper analyzes the situation of open access (OA) of worldwide universities and explores the reasons, so as to provide references for formulating the open access policy and promoting open access in China. [Methods] The network survey method was used to explore the statistical modes of open access data source in CWTS ranking, and the classified statistics method was used to assess the open access situation from three levels of globe, nation, and university. [Findings] Universities from Europe and North America have high levels of open access, and universities from Asia and Africa have low levels. The United States and China have the largest number of universities participating in open access, with 173 and 165 universities, respectively. The United Kingdom and the United States are the countries with the highest participation levels in the world, and the university with the highest degree of open access in the world is the Turkey Birkant University. Among the top 50 universities in the world, 33 universities are from United Kingdom, accounting for 66%; 7 universities are from the United States, accounting for 14%; and 1 university is from China, accounting for 2%. [Conclusions] European and North American governments, research funding agencies, and universities have adopted several effective measures in terms of open access, and have achieved certain results. Although there are a large number of universities participating in open access in China, the degree of open access is generally low. Open access involves multiple stakeholders, and the government, publishing industries, and academic communities need to work together to promote open access.