【目的】 分析科技期刊中“强制引用”现象产生的原因,研究应对策略。【方法】 基于逻辑分析和问卷调查方法,分析强制引用的基本内涵与产生原因,并从思想认识、行为规范、治理机制等方面探讨应对策略。【结果】 强制引用现象在国内外都时有发生,投稿到国外期刊遇到强制引用要求的比例(56.2%)高于投稿到国内期刊遇到强制引用要求的比例(39.36%)。建议提出的“非正当性”和建议执行的“强制性”是强制引用的突出特征,影响因子的负面效应是强制引用产生的主要原因,影响因子的商业性与学术性张力、计算方法缺陷以及科研活动过度功利化、论文评审规则漏洞等是造成影响因子负面效应的主要原因。【结论】 治理强制引用首先应破除对影响因子的迷信和偏见,其次应建立健全基于利益正当性的法规与伦理规范,还应建立系统全面的多元共治体系。
[Purposes] This paper analyzes the causes of the phenomenon of coercive citation in scientific journals and studies the countermeasures. [Methods]Based on the logic analysis and the questionnaire survey, this paper analyzed the basic connotation and causes of coercive citation, and discussed the countermeasures from the perspectives of the ideology, the norm of conduct, and the governance mechanism. [Findings]The phenomenon of coercive citation occurs at home and abroad, and the proportion of coercive citation requirements encountered by contributors to foreign journals (56.2%) is higher than that encountered by contributors to domestic journals (39.36%). The illegitimacy of the proposal and the coerciveness of execution are the distinctive characteristics of coercive citation; the negative effect of impact factor is the main reason for the coercive citation; and the tension of profitable nature and academic nature of impact factors, defects of calculation method, the excessively utilitarian of scientific activities, and loopholes of review rules are the main causes of the negative effects of impact factor. [Conclusions] Firstly, we should get rid of the superstition and prejudice to impact factor. Secondly, we should establish and perfect laws and ethics based on the legitimacy of interests, and establish a systematic and comprehensive system of multiple co-governance.